You may have heard of Bowden tubes, but what are they really? How are they different

You may have heard of Bowden tubes, but what are they really? How are they different from other extruders, and which should you choose? Find out in this guide to Bowden tubes. The extruder, where filament is melted and pushed out, is a key component in any FDM 3D printer. Extruders consist of a stepper motor and a hot end. The stepper motor grips the filament and feeds it to the hot end, which melts the plastic onto the bed. There are two main types of extruders: direct and Bowden. A direct drive extruder has the stepper motor on the print head itself, so filament gets pushed directly into the hot end. This means the print head has to carry the weight of the stepper motor as it moves along the x-axis. The Bowden extruder has the motor on the frame, far away from the print head. This is where the Bowden tube comes in. The motor feeds the filament through a Bowden tube (usually made of PTFE plastic) to the print head. The tube guides the filament from the fixed motor to the moving hot end, protecting the plastic from snapping or being stretched by constant movement. Flexible and rubber-like filaments can be difficult to print with Bowden tubes. Since these filaments aren’t rigid,...

Highly crystalline Ni-doped FeP/carbon hollow nanorods as all-pH efficient and durable hydrogen evolving electrocatalysts

Herein, we report the synthesis of uniform hollow nanorods of Ni-doped FeP nanocrystals hybridized with carbon as electrocataysts for the electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). These hollow nanorods are prepared based on the etching and coordination reaction between metal-organic frameworks and phytic acid, followed by a pyrolysis process. Benefiting from the abundant active sites, the improved mass and charge transport capability, the optimized Ni-doped FeP/C hollow nanorods exhibit excellent HER activities for achieving a current density of 10 mA cm−2 at an overpotential of 72, 117, and 95 mV in acidic, neutral, and alkaline media, respectively, as well as superior stability. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and basic density functional theory calculations suggest that the improved HER activity originates from the synergistic modulation of the active components, structural and electronic properties. This protocol provides a general and friendly strategy to construct hollow phosphides for energy-related applications. Hydrogen generation through water splitting is considered as a green and efficient way to meet the increasing demands for renewable and clean energy s...